Hydraulic pistons have played a huge part in shaping the natural and built environments around every person. When a force is exerted on a material, which includes lifting, pushing, hauling, dumping, digging, crushing, and drilling, usually the machine in question is powered by hydraulic pistons. This includes numerous machines and vehicles, such as tractors, trucks, cranes, and dozers.
A hydraulic piston exerts a great amount of force simply by the exertion of pressure on the surface area of the piston. This means that the larger the diameter of the piston, the greater the force it will be able to deliver. This understanding of force is often explained with the equation: Area X PSI (pounds per square inch) = Force.
The piston is housed inside the cylinder, the diameter of which is referred to as the bore. The piston will have a piston seal, which allows the pressure inside the cylinder to build up. If a hydraulic piston is not delivering the force you expect it may be because the piston seal is worn.
Most cylinders for commercial use are double-acting, which means that they have an opening on either end, enabling them to push and pull. These can be converted into a single-acting cylinder using a simple breather device, which allows the air on one side of the cylinder to be expelled.
The piston is attached to the rod or shaft of the cylinder, which passes through the piston and is usually fixed with a large nut at one end of the mechanism. When calculating the force of a cylinder, the surface area of the rod must be subtracted from the equation. Typically, the rod is built of strong steel since it takes the bulk of the strain during operation and must resist bending. The rod must also be incredibly hard in order to resist pitting and corrosion as well as being exceptionally smooth to prevent wear to the rod seals, which prevent a reduction in pressure.
The gland or head of the cylinder is the part which the cylinder rod moves back and forward through. This is where the rod seals are located as well as the wiper seal, which stops any dirt or other contaminants getting into the cylinder.
The butt describes the base or cap end of the piston. Usually, it is the butt end where attachment points are fixed, depending on the type and size of piston. This includes the following attachment types: clevis, cross tube, tang and pin-eye.
For more information, contact companies like Afkos Industries.